The Fourth Rwanda Population and Housing Census (RPHC4) establish that the population of Rwanda is 10,515,973 residents, of which 52% are women and 48% men. Since the 2002 Census, the population has increased by 2.4 million, which represents an average annual growth rate of 2.6%. Thus, population growth has recovered its long-term rate following the decline in the 1990s, which were marked by the war and the genocide against the Tutsi.

During this prior period (i.e. 1991–2002), annual growth fell to 1.2%. The population of Rwanda is still largely rural, with 83% living in rural areas.